PHYSICS SYLLABUS (THEORY)
CLASS XII (12th)
EDUCATIONAL YEAR 2022-2023
Unit – I
Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields
- Electric charges,
- Conservation of charge,
- Coulomb’s law-force between two-point charges,
- forces between multiple charges;
- superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
- Electric field,
- electric field due to a point charge,
- electric field lines,
- electric dipole,
- electric field due to a dipole,
- torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
- Electric flux,
- statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire,
- uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
- Electric potential,
- potential difference,
- electric potential due to a point charge,
- a dipole and system of charges;
- equipotential surfaces,
- electrical potential energy of a system of two-point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
- Conductors and insulators,
- free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
- Dielectrics and electric polarization,
- capacitors and capacitance,
- combination of capacitors in series and in parallel,
- capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates,
- energy stored in a capacitor (no derivation, formulae only).
Unit – II
Chapter–3: Current Electricity
- Electric current,
- flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor,
- drift velocity,
- mobility and their relation with electric current;
- Ohm’s law,
- V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear),
- electrical energy and power,
- electrical resistivity and conductivity,
- temperature dependence of resistance,
- Internal resistance of a cell,
- potential difference and emf of a cell,
- combination of cells in series and in parallel,
- Kirchhoff’s rules,
- Wheatstone bridge.
Unit – III
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
- Concept of magnetic field,
- Oersted’s experiment.
- Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
- Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire.
- Straight solenoid (only qualitative treatment),
- force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.
- Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field,
- force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere,
- torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field;
- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment,
- moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter
- Bar magnet,
- bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment only),
- magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis (qualitative treatment only),
- torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field (qualitative treatment only),
- magnetic field lines.
- Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances with examples,
- Magnetization of materials,
- effect of temperature on magnetic properties.
Unit – IV
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction
- Electromagnetic induction;
- Faraday’s laws,
- induced EMF and current;
- Lenz’s Law,
- Self and mutual induction.
Chapter–7: Alternating Current
- Alternating currents,
- peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage;
- reactance and impedance;
- LCR series circuit (phasors only),
- power in AC circuits,
- power factor,
- wattless current.
- AC generator,
Unit – V
Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves
- Basic idea of displacement current,
- Electromagnetic waves,
- their characteristics,
- their transverse nature (qualitative idea only).
- Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit – VI
Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
- Reflection of light,
- spherical mirrors,
- mirror formula,
- refraction of light,
- total internal reflection and optical fibers,
- refraction at spherical surfaces,
- thin lens formula,
- lens maker’s formula,
- power of a lens,
- combination of thin lenses in contact,
- refraction of light through a prism.
- Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Chapter–10: Wave Optics
- Wave front and Huygen’s principle,
- reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts.
- Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle.
- Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width (No derivation final expression only),
- coherent sources and sustained interference of light,
- diffraction due to a single slit,
- width of central maxima (qualitative treatment only).
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
- Dual nature of radiation,
- Photoelectric effect,
- Hertz and Lenard’s observations;
- Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
- Experimental study of photoelectric effect
- Matter waves-wave nature of particles,
- de-Broglie relation.
Atoms and Nuclei
- Alpha-particle scattering experiment;
- Rutherford’s model of atom;
- Bohr model of hydrogen atom,
- Expression for radius of nth possible orbit,
- velocity and energy of electron in his orbit,
- of hydrogen line spectra (qualitative treatment only).
- Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force
- Mass-energy relation,
- mass defect;
- binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number;
- nuclear fission,
- nuclear fusion.
Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics:
Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits:
- Energy bands in conductors,
- semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n type, p-n junction
- Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias,
- application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.