3.1 Concept of Test, Examination, Measurement and Evaluation
Very often the terms Test, Examination, Measurement and Evaluations are assumed to be same and are used as through they are synonymous and mutually interchangeable. But they carry different functional meaning.
- A test usually presents a uniform ste of tasks to all members of the given group at a scheduled time with due prior notice.
- Sometimes unannounced tests are possible and useful in classroom.
- A test consists of a standard set of questions to be answered.
- A test is a systematic procedure for complaining comparing the behavior of two or more persons.
- Examinations are combinations of tests.
- Its scope is wider than the test.
- It may be defined as the assessment of a person’s performance.
- One is able to utilize the quality and effectiveness of the skills.
- The examination is intended only to focus on the tangible and easily measurable objectives of education like knowledge, understanding, skill and very little in the application.
- Examination is a procedure for measuring ability, achievement, interest etc.
- The test is an examination to reveal the relative standing of an individual in the group with respect to intelligence or personality or aptitude or achievement.
- Measurement quantifies the data obtained through tests.
- It is simply a number or quantitative value which express the amount of characteristics possessed by an individual.
- This quantitative data is to be properly interpreted through evolution.
- Measurement is the process of assigning symbols to dimensions of phenomenal in order to characterize the status of phenomenon as precisely as possible.
- Test/Examination –> Measurement –> Evolution.
- Evaluation refers to both quantitative and qualitative aspects.
- It helps not only to measure educational achievement but also to improve it.
- It has a great influence on popular study habits and the Teacher’s methods of instruction.
- Evaluation is relative renew technical term introduced to design designate more comprehensive concept of measurement in fluid in conventional test and examination.
- Evaluation means a subjective judgement of the measurement.
Example: When Rani has secured 79 marks in a mathematics test, 79 is said to be a measurement of the test.
If we analyze in which objective she is good for test items are not do well is said to evaluation.
An evaluation provides a detailed analysis of the test.
3.5.1 Types of Test
These are divided into Unit test, Diagnostic test, Achievement test.
Unit Test: Unit test is a short test to be given at the end of dating a name and it’s not a random assortment of questions it may be conducted for 15 or 20 or 25 marks instead of 100 marks it is understood by many teachers at present it is a teacher made test class room test.
Scholastic Achievement Test: This test measures the actual level of attainment achievement test assess the achievement of students regarding their learning about a particular fixed point in a test time it is drilling design to measure the instructional objectives this test are more comprehensive and their level of difficulty is also widely distributed the scholastic assessment can be categorised in teacher made and standardized test.
Different types of test items
Essay Type Test:
The essay type test examination may be defined as a relative leaf return response to a problem situation or situations in which the written answer in mathematical test we use essay items to test analytical thinking logical ability communication skills drawing skills and reception in thinking in this items students are required to select organise and integrate information before writing about the answers.
Examples: If 60% people in a city like cricket 30% like football and the remaining life then what percent of the people like other games total number of people are 50 lakh find the exact number who like is type of game.
- It is prepared easily.
- It test language ability of student.
- It develops good study habits.
- It eliminates guessing.
- Mathematical ability is like critical reasoning logical thinking analysis synthesis etc are to be tested.
- Systematic presentation can be developed.
- It can assess students ability to recognise and present his ideas.
- Students interpreting ideas are measured.
- It takes lot of time in testing.
- It has low validity law reliability and law usability.
- All objectives should not be tested.
- Scoring of some of these items objectively is so difficult because there are white Harrison’s in answers.
- It emphasis on rote memorization.
- There is a chance of grouping in this type examinations.
- It may have subjectively.
- There is no possibility to cover all the content.
Short Answer Type Tests:
Short answer questions generally required in short answer a question which can be answered in less than 4 steps may be called a short answer questions.
- It improves the reliability and validity compared to easy questions preparation and administration easy content can be cover it takes less time it improves objectivity in scoring no provision for subjectivity all the objectives can be tested limitation there are significant limitation it has less chance to test language ability if test has all short answers Som of the ability belong to maths are left objective type test items or by taking or underlining on of the given choices this can only be one write objective answer to an objective question so this is test items are free from any subjective by other from the tester for the maker these test items are broadly divided into two categories Oracle type recognization types recall type test the test items are those in which the the the test items are those in which the answers are not given the examine has to provide the answer to the test item these are very short answer or one word answer and fill in the blanks for completion type very short answer one word answer that is given in question from form or statement then the exam in house to recall and write the answer it may be about it all formula symbol property etc example what is formula for volume of a cylinder in a triangle if one angle is 110 degree then what is the name of the triangle give an example for linear equation in one variable fill in the blanks composition type the test atom consists of a statement or sentence the blank has to be filled by the examine the item may contain one or two blanks it is better to avoid the sentence start with blank example sum of the internal angles is dash – dash in complex polygon if a b c are rational numbers then a + b equal to a b + AC is dash property if X + a is a factor of function then a power of minus A is equal to dash
Recognition types test items of answer the question the exam in notes to write on his or her own one has to select one stress among the given alternative so this test are also called fixed response test these are more objective general type test the main motors are discussed below the multiple choice type in this type or 5 possible answers question out of who is only one is correct exam in has to select only one as his response these items maybe in form of sentence statement fill in the blank or question other than the answer the remains alternators are cal destructors they may be complete with answer in selection as a response to the question example
Matching type test this type consists of two columns of items one column has questions and their answers each item of first column to be with the item in the second column answer column has two or three or more number of compare two questions in order to reduce gasing examples
True or false this time is question has two alternate is like or or yes or no the examine has to select any one from this as his response it is constructed easily example some sentence given mark with write in the sentence is true if the sentence false mark with a forex sign if in a triangle all sides are equal that is cal isosceles triangle to construct a rhombus two diagonal measurements are sufficient circle has four lines of symmetry.
Merits for Objective Type Questions:
- These are more reliable and valid.
- Contents should be covered.
- More instructional objectives have to be tested compared to essay questions.
- They are comparatively easy to construct.
- They are easily administered and scored.
- The items of the test ensure clarity.
- Very useful for competitive exams.
- It involves mental exercise.
- Higher learning outcomes like understanding application, analysis, judgement can be better tested through such questions.
- It reduces Rote memory.
- Little subjectivity is these type tests.
- These tests are very comprehensive being a very large number of items.
Limitations in Objective Type Tests:
- This type of test inadequately allows the opportunity for the people to organize and express his thoughts.
- There is a chance to examine to obtain correct answer by a random dressing.
- Test items are more in number compared to type so the cost of printing is increased.
- Preparing multiple choice is difficult why because locating a sufficient number of incorrect but good distracters is not an easy task.
- Guessing is encouraged.
- Higher learning outcomes like synthesis, interpretation, problem-solving skills, drawing skill etc. can not be tested.
- In True/False, a student who blindly answer all the items as true or false, a test may score 50% such tests have low reliability.
- These tests are unsuitable for diagnosing the weakness of the pupils.