UNIT – 2
Factors Affecting Gender Discrimination
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2.4 Women & Girls Education Status at Present in Our Society.
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Introduction: – The women and girls have equal status, honor, dignity, rights as well in considerations. They have to get the equally status on virtue of demographic, health, medical, education, domestic, occupational and legal.
What & Why Women/Girls Are??
- Women constitute whole world population.
- They produce half the world’s food supply.
- The productive account 60% of the working force, comprise 30% official labour force and receive benefits 10% of world’s economy.
- There are less than 1% women and girls occupied world’s real estate.
- The women and girls have little access to productive resources and negligible comfort over family income.
- Gender bias the negligible control by part of the global society.
- The visible and reported gender bias malpractices like female fetus termination, killing the girl child at birth, less nutrition, medical care, education and freedom.
- Another adult segmentation also get in marriage before puberty, dowry death, legal discrimination, professions, precarious widow life etc. should be redefine.
- The important role of the woman in pro-creation, up-keep, management and development of the family.
- In this cluster the women and girls can not be denied on performance on diverse economic, social, political, religious, national as well as international roles.
- Despite these, they deserve equal status, honor, dignity, rights and considerations.
- The complex factors have reduced the status of women and girls to a lower level, leading to gender bias, loss of the freedom.
Women in India – Historical Perspectives
- The women have been viewed eventually in historical accounts and ancient stories.
- Around Vedic Age, the family revolves, women enjoyed a privileged status like men.
- The Muslim period was foot-pain period for the women.
- After that, The British presence had the effect of generating self-awareness among women.
- They made their presence felt in the freedom struggle.
- At the call of Mahatma Gandhi thousands come forwards as volunteers.
- By inspiring and encouraging the women to shed their stereotyped roles and render their services to society as educators, politicians and working professional.
- Now-a-days the women up-liftment comes with Mahila Samitis and other organizations.
- The educated society on ill-effects of the Purdah System, child marriage and ill-treatment of widows.
- They raised the hands for the equal rights for them in franchise and education.
- “The Indian re-forms Act of 1921 en-franchised a small section of Indian population for the First Time and women were also included – (Devi 1982)“
Conclusion:- Overall, the situation of the women and girls have gradually improved with current time steadily.
Different Status of Women & Girls.
There are different types of status for the eve of women and girls improvements. The states are the way to bring the women empowerment for the society.
- The sex ratio in India – Male : Female = 1000 : 931.
- 1000 : 931 indicates that the count Female numbers are 931 while Male 1000.
- This variation fluctuate with time 0.9 per year in current statistics from 63 years.
- The average marriage for women has crossed 18 years.
- The fertility rate is 4.6 births per women.
Health & Medical Status.
- The nutritional status of the children in Punjab indicates clearly that 20% female and 40% male child acquire normal nutritional status.
- And also 35% female and 20% male child found with moderate malnutrition.
- 58% female child went without medical aid as it 31% in male child.
- Intake of various food items by female child is generally significantly less than of male.
- Incidence of diseases based on deficiencies and infections are generally more for female child.
- The mortality percentage of females are always higher than that of males in both rural and urban.
All of the above, it found that female child found less care an attention as compared to male child.
- The percentage male and female literacy are 62% and 38% respectively.
- The enhancement of male and female literacy is 0.7% and 0.5% per year.
- It is seen that female child enrollment at all levels in significantly less than the male child.
- In educational enhancement level the sex ratio of girls are decreasing.
- The number of females getting education is half of that males.
- The principal familiar rules of a women in our Indian society are pro-creation, child caring and home management.
- While man is considered to manage families external affairs.
- About 40% villages have sever water shortages.
- By fact women have to spend up-to 4 hours a day to provide water for household consumption.
- Similar situational timing also spent on fuel and fodder.
- The patriarchal nature of society the nation of women’s income only as a subsidiary contribution.
- All workers belong to the informal sector 90% are women.
- Out of them 80% engaged in agriculture and the rest 10% in other activities.
- Unskilled workers constitute 90% of rural and 7.% of urban areas.
- All poor women especially BPL(Below Puberty Line), have to perform domestic duties.
- The homing women has no principal occupation.
- Legislation on wages, maternity benefits, child care, social security etc. have not benefited most of them.
- Plans, programs and legislation do not discriminate against women.
- Their implementation mechanism injustice of the developmental process.
- The participation of women in income generation for the family has been increasing over-time.
- The trade union having women members 7.5% and executive members 1.0%.
- Most of the job opportunities in the organized sector are availed to the women/girls are reserved.
- The central, provincial and private establishment jobs are exclusively for men and women as with girls specific seated.
- Although legally there is not any discrimination seen against women, this is not reflected in practice.
- According to present laws regard to inheritance and property rights, it discriminates against women.
- Land records do not incorporate the rights of women.
- Property records are in the name of husband or father.
- The women are not integral part of lands as co-owner or co-cultivator.
- A women/girls life is economically dependent on the will of her husband, father or any male members.
- Women are actively participating in the democratic process and elections which is quite more impressive in enhancing their status.
- Some of the great Indian like Indira Gandhi, Vijay Laxmi Mahadevi Verma, Kalpana Chawala are the example of leaders, social reformers, social workers as well of administrators.
- They are doing hard work in performing professional as well as household responsibilities very actively.
Measures For improvement of Women Status.
- After huge level improvements in the women status in India, they are still exploited and abused in many ways like rape, sex discrimination etc.
- Juvenile Justice Bill 2015 replacing Indian Juvenile Delinquency Law 2000 after Nirbhaya case.
Conclusion:- The concerted efforts appear to be essential for improve women status.
This requires a multipronged approach particularly in the below described areas,
Legislative measures for the benefits of women workers
Administrative machinery to control human rights violation, economic and physical exploitation, physical injury and violence etc.
Appropriate interventions through Government or Non-Government Organizations and programs.
Should be put effort by print and electronic media in projecting a positive image of women/girls.
International efforts and influence to address issues pertaining to women’s rights etc.
2.4.1 Rural Societies in Relation To Girls Education
2.4.2 Urban Societies in Relation To Girls Education
2.4.3 Tribal Societies in Relation To Girls Education
2.5 Women & Girls Status At Present in Our Society
UNIT-1: Basics of Gender