1.1 Meaning of Curriculum
The term curriculum is commonly understood to me course of studies because the term curriculum is derived from the Latin word which means Ron and it signifies a runway or IT course which one runs to reach a goal the curriculum is the instructional and educative program through which the popular achieve their goals ideas and aspirations of life.
It is the sound of the process of education it acts as what in organising educational thought on soamanager and is undoubtedly the heart of the school and all that goes with it it is hotel to top how and when to teeth without deciding what to teach.
The modern concept of Curriculum is that it should form the all round development of the learner according to the current concept the curriculum includes the total ATI of experiences that the learners received through all types of activities in and outside the classroom. The attacks of Curriculum construction in the selection of right experiences for the learners which will lead to the attainment of the educational objectives it includes not only the course content resources and materials for the purpose but also the guidelines on the methods and approaches to the teaching of the subject.
Curriculum levels from life itself and curriculum planning suitable life centre it must also confirm to the needs of the state and the society at the same time it should be flexible and dynamic since our modern society is fast changing with time.
- Curriculum general of all plan of the content of specific materials of instruction that the school should offer the students by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification for entrance into professional or vocational field. Carter V. Good
- curriculum includes all the learners experience in or outside school that are included in program which has win devised to help in development of physically emotionally socially spiritually and morally.
- curriculum embodies all the experiences which are utilised by the school to attend the aims of education.
- curriculum Digital in the hands of an artist teacher to mould his material ovals according to his ideal I am in his studio school.
1.1.1 Characteristics of Curriculum
The specific characteristics of Curriculum as given below:
- the contents should be chosen on the basis of its possible contribution to the objective subject matter should be considered primarily as a means to an end
The curriculum the curriculum should contain variety of physical and mental activities which can lead to knowledge skill and proper attitude these activities are essential for desirable adjustment of the minds of students to environment the content of course should be full of direct significance to life’s problems and activities the order of difficulty of learning activities that students made their the satisfaction of accomplishment through reasonable efforts learning activities service charge call for interest of students should feel pleasure in completing them the activities included in the curriculum of science should afford opportunity for exercise of creative activity of young students in fields of romance answer discovery and invention the activities should provide direct and concrete experiences as far as possible but actual limitations of the school should always be kept in mind the activities pertaining to curriculum of science should include opportunity is connected with scales and addictive aptitude in various life situations of society as a whole. the activities should be of nature that they may lead to easy comprehension of generalisation of those scientific facts which are important social implications.
1.1.2 Principles of Science Curriculum
Some important principles of science curriculum are given below:
principle of neet the curriculum so so it needs of that is different body colour for organ and rural children should be there the curriculum should provide for meeting needs of the popular primary secondary it should provide for the preparation of couples for the letter needs.
principle of furnace the curriculum design suit dress the standard of life and standard of education of the students principle of community centre the curriculum constructor should be in accordance with the needs and interest of the community it should be able to take the demands of the community principle of child centred curriculum should be in accordance to the nails interest and requirements of the child methods of teaching store b cells and thought as far as possible principle of utility the science curriculum story based on principle of utility the curriculum should help the students in living a phone from and self fulfilling life it’s ok provide the child both academic and social growth principle of integration integrate the need and activity on one hand and the needs of the society on the other hand which can make improvement in learning of balanced curriculum there should be balance curriculum in every respect the theory and practical work can be done quite easily and simulate Nestle the curriculum should provide for an acquaintance with both work and leisure of creativity due to creative nature of children the curriculum should be so framed that provides chance to discover the creative potential of the children principle of conservation while constructing curriculum those topics should also be included which help in preservation and transmission of culture and civilization.
Principle of printers should be based on principles of learning the learning environment should be to the students needs and maturity should be provided matching the curriculum to the stage of the students mental development is vital.
1.1.3 Steps or Measures to be Taken to Depth of The Science Curriculum
The content chosen should be in conformity with the aims and objectives of science it should be related to the interest of different age groups and everyday life and the needs of the community mastery how the subject matter should not be made an end in itself teaching profiles how to think is more important than teaching them what to think it should consist of a variety of physical and mental activities that will lead to those knowledge skills interest and attitudes who is are necessary for proper adjustment to the social and physical environment the content that is used in giving populus experiences in scientific thinking most interesting informative and free from in Aquarius of superficiality opportunities should be provided for first hand experience and for application of scientific method of knowledge skills and attitudes to life situations that are educated should not be neglected it should be flexible and so sweet the wearing needs of the children of the community it should also include the material which helps in the appreciation of the work and sacrifice of great scientist in their search for truth IT services can be adequately dealt with honour stipulated conditions of charge available time staff recruitment it is the course should be divided into English each should be content essentially a measure problem of everyday life its units should be divided into so what problems to facilitate learning by the pupils.
1.2 Different Approaches of Curriculum Organisation
The concept of Curriculum organisation is done nothing what the way in which curriculum is created especially of parts of the curriculum plan it refers to the arrangement of the elements of a column into 10 30 entity the parts of the components are elements are goals and objectives subject matter learning expenses and evolution approach.
The nature of these components and the manner in which they are organised in the curriculum planning comprise the curriculum organisation or design all the most welcome designers within them this four elements of fun they are not given equal what is frequently content or subject matter receives the primary emphasis.
The measure of process in which the curriculum is organised are:
Logical approach psychological approach topical approach concentric approach approach child centred curriculum.
1. Logical Approach
logical approach is variable in constructing science curriculum in this approach topics arranges in the logical sequence first knowledge of the fundamental concepts then understanding of the concept and then understanding of the concepts and then knowledge of basic concepts is essential.
For example in the science the topic our body is essential and then understanding about the our health protection faster so these topics are arranged in a logical sequence the approach can be logical file organisation the different parts of the same unit therefore in the logical approach the emphasis is on the presentation of the topics in the logic order in this method the topics are arranged from simple to complex.
Topics are arranged from simple to complex students develop logical thinking.
It is difficult for teachers to arrange the topics according to this approach it is not possible to arrange each and every topic in this approach.
2. Psychological Approach
In the psychological approach content is organised according to the psychological needs of the students in this approach the focus is on the type of logic which is more appropriate for the students of the particular is group and what kind of logic can develop social logical thinking in this method of organising the curriculum due to consideration is given to the students is maturity interest needs level of understanding power of assimilation and previous knowledge the order in which the topics are to be it will largely depend upon all these factors it may be remarked that the logical and psychological approaches do not Deepa certainly therefore there is no reason why the organisation cannot be both logical and psychological the combination of the two is very desirable and visible all things thinking is psychological and education should make it logical as well psychology throws light on the use of a topic for student from the academic Kajal arts practical point of view logic will help in maintaining the link and sequence of topics which are useful and meaningful for the child in combination this to view points can make the subject matter interesting and comprehensible.
3. Topical Approach
in this type of approach the topics for study are selected according to the ability and interest of children is topic in AVN stands by itself and the fact that matter pending pertaining to a topic is taken and dealt with completed at one strips its maybe master and tested separately thought to its relation to other topic send to the home cause aajkal the organisation is easy in this type of however this approach can lead to a website syllabus with the buyers heavily for or against some subjects also it may be rather difficult to return balance sequence and coherence in the curriculum because of individual buyers in this approach certain topics of study suitable for VIII ability and interest of children make of the whole syllabus is topic in western by itself and all the topics are rather could be connected together by the teacher with the help of individual lessons call link lessons for the children of the age group 13 + and above the approach is quite OBB file for easy topics like acid Ren pollution genetic engineering are included in the biology and chemistry syllabus because of its relevance in today’s world in starting the subject of milk and concrete on one topic at a time it is believed that by careful selection and detailed study of the topics opportunities can be provided to the students for an intensive study of particular problem instead of repeating the content in number of times it is done encrypt concentric approach we can discuss all the aspects of a problem and give give an all over view of that particular problem.
Printicple aap Topical Arrangement
topical methods is best open the unity of the topic that is complete oxidation of the topic it means a topic on started should be completely executed at in the same class in doing so the enter topic the persons easy as well as difficult should be completed in the sentence this method has so many drawbacks married it is possible to complete the whole unit due to less number of units in the syllabus it will be easy to complete the syllabus demerits in every topic there will be easy as well as difficult persons which is highly on psychological view of the office due to the unit it takes two or three months time for its completion which led to develop 32 in the puppies.
kapils salon the topic for only one year after few years they may forget the topic hence retention of knowledge is not possible there is no your to your revision of the unit keeping in view all it is not at all suitable for the organisation of mathematics curriculum.
4. Concentric Approach
it is a curriculum approach by who is the popular repairs the study of a subject or topic are two or three different brand level is time increasing the difficulty level is subject for basic idea and its content expands from this basic theme to its application and the content is selected and presented in appropriate to the way of development of the growing child this system is based on the principle that are the early stages the subjects should not be treated exam positively.
for example if your teeth ko feel about light in High school the content will be divided into some parts and 2000 to be learn class 6 8 9 10 classes according to the mental and psychological age of the students the curriculum will be constructed does the circle of knowledge widens constantly and accordance with the intellectual maturity of the profile and their ability to assimilate knowledge artist of their progress.
5. Spiral Approach
the concept of spiral approach relates not only to the vertical integration of knowledge but also to the horizontal integration of the adding of breath hair content is organised organising the interrelationships between the structure of the basic ideas of is measured discipline for students to graph this basic ideas and structures they are developed and retail locked in a spiral fashion in increasing depth and breadth are the four wheel through the school program so in this suppose the content is not only from stages two stages but also at each stage it is related to the other disciplines are subjects that is the content is correlated with the others also for easy the topic digestive enzymes photosynthesis is there in biology is related to chemistry where in the students learn about the chemical structure of composition of those enzymes basin on the agenda ability of the children the subject matter of social studies should be graded so that it can save the children belonging to different age groups for example young children study the problems of health in home school and my burger in the next test they study the health problem are state and National health agencies at later stage this study health protecting measures in the different parts of the world in the last stage this story The international health organisations.
the topics will be selected according to the material mental ability of the children it starts from the general studies and goes to the difficult tense it creates interest among the population checking will be sure it helps to understand the social problems easily limitations students feel monotonous as they study the some topics at all level of the school the students do not find much newness in the topics it requires very efficient teachers.
6. Child Centred Curriculum
there are many definitions for child centred curriculum that fall at one end is the belief that most of the curriculum is sent out on the children’s ideas and questions it is constructed by the child and teacher are the other end is structured program with little child input expect during free time the reality of a good science curriculum is that its seeds in between these extremes.
1.3 Science Curriculum Position Paper APSCF 2011 Science
under rapidly changing conditions our children are growing up so there should be a change in the teaching learning process science has been undergoing major faradism saves from the earlier positive to develop of critical methods accommodating multiple perspectives many academic institutions based on in Andhra Pradesh and intellectual from Andhra Pradesh have made significant contribution to this transformation of science it is time to harness this positive resource to transfer hona our school education science pedagogy requires that the curriculum be designed keeping in mind the context of learners the challenge before the science curriculum design or East to address regional variations are the same time willing more universal curriculum objectives atoms should be made tool help children understand their one world and the largest wall through constant comparisons and reflections of similarities and differences this requires major regional sensitivity in scientific issues in the text books and also space for the teacher to take up blocker listen while teaching in the class we need to develop special skills observation curiosity scientific attitude region believe true document it is only important is to enable children to critically question the information provider and associates value and limitation in number of disciplines like botany zoology physics chemistry genetic seeds with their own distinct methodologies constitutes science wireless court in the distance of is it is also necessary to develop in a disciplinary areas to arrive at on understanding and social science studies different aspects of human human life hacks to understand scientific phenomena the study of science is both in quantitative and qualitative methods in quantitative method approach scientific phenomena are studied through quantifiable evidence her balidan reliable findings and generalizations are made in qualitative approach scientific phenomena are studied through direct observations of direct and indirect interaction in schooling in our country was once frivolous of the few but today it is the fundamental rights for right to free and compulsory education act 2019 providing education is an important goal of health by the Indian constitution constitution of India made it obligatory for the step to provide basic education to all in the age group of 6 to 14 this was used tax India is a nation of diversities in the thyroid cultural and linguistic plurality to democratic values and social justice Andhra Pradesh is no exception to this the APS is an agreement with the principle stated in ncf 2005 that the child should be at the basic of education system in addition apscf text stunt that learning should be interesting best and that the interactions between different component as system should be given equal importance display skill will guide perspectives and actions in the reasons of science education allowance of education are to enable the child think critically to absorb to analyse analyse and draw patterns and to be sensitive to the diversity of human life knowledge should not only include pieces of information what ways of thinking and feeling in order to achieve this children will have to pay play enactus part in creating that knowledge in themselves and to analyse to install this the role of teacher is very important in technological breakthrough and arrival of virtual classroom the importance of classroom teacher Hajj not reduced. However cute in the traditional role of the teacher is recommended dear teacher should at Aaj Paisa letters of knowledge rather than ogive horse of knowledge they should regarding their students as constructions of knowledge rather than more resistance and Sur has positive attitude toward the learner adalaj the learning process.
along with the interaction between the child the teacher the parent and the community interactions most awesome take place between the child and the learning resources air ambulance that there is a set of understanding cognitive abilities and analytical skill in logical reasoning and in parents building in different forms on the line all system of knowledge after completion of school education children should develop scientific temper specific attitude physical skills language abilities and after thinking they should become responsible citizen the knowledge that is generated from the school must be best on the child’s background and their experiences crops at play work help are also ki areas in schools curriculum along with subject specific areas it is also an integral part of the learning process and of ensuring quality education quality education also implies providing children with an environment conductive to learning in schools this goes beyond the teaching process and the curriculum of physical environment and resource available to the child the quality of education in ferment each of fun for the environment needs to be examined and reform do whatever required.
Telugu learning environment there is need for simatic reforms there should be a change in the curriculum in preparation of teacher it is only through enhancing the quality of information between various agencies education can be made interactive and meaningful.
The Guiding Principles for AP State Curriculum Framework
connecting knowledge to life outside the school answering that learning is shifted from root methods and reaching the curriculum to provide in overall development of child rather than textbook and making exams flexible integrated into classroom live competition of values building child’s knowledge potentiality and talent development of physical and mental ability to the full fullest extent learning through activities discovery and explanation in a child friendly and child and terminal medium of instructions as per as possible in mother tongue helping the soil to expresses musically competitive and continuous evaluation in child understanding of knowledge of his and her ability to apply the sum no child shall be required to pass any board exam well completion of elementary education after completing elementary education every child should be given a certificate therefore it is mandatory on the part of a state to take of Curriculum and evolution reformulated in the oxidation the key principles of the state curriculum framework are formed.
Flying Yadav ki Principles of the APSCF 2011:
keeping the potential of the child to launch always in cocos respecting the systems of knowledge thought languages with children going to school connecting knowledge to life outside the school ensuring that learning is shifted away from root method and hawkers should be on introduction project work analysis etc anything curriculum making agents on more flexible and integrated into classroom life more focus on assessment for learning and assessment of learning promoting social constructivism best curriculum and critical pedagogy across curriculum areas nothing to ask flora and fauna and respect for biodiversity and social diversity shall be promoted as a part of school curriculum.
1.3.1 National Fixation Group Position Paper on Science
the present National Focus group and left in the past to create an ideal science curriculum have a lot of work to be done that held the need to discuss existing person and then then introduction to propose curriculum framework NFG highlighted the man is used to make science science highlighted there is a need to ensure that the curriculum recommendation adequately transmitted translated into text books from the initial stages of school sciences science is given an important place in curriculum sans Mili transacts information and is to Central on the text but it is felt that the contents should be connected to Delhi realities children conceptual understanding should be given importance if the curriculum in overloaded there is need to review the current exam system it is important to initiate the importance of science by laying the foundation of an analytical and creative mind the NFC mentions the point made by the Jaspal committee ncf 2000 that we should try to minimise the emphasis on retention of information without comprehension syllabus for more and text book writers need to choose what to include from a mass of relevant information the efforts should not be to convey as many factors as possible in street a form of concepts and the ability to analyse scientific realities should be stressed.
Issused to be Addressed:
Content load syllabus and textbooks writer need to choose what to include from a mass of relevant information it’s not confirm many bags instead of some concepts and the ability to analyse the reality so be stressed. scientific rigour the relevant information should be chosen focus on concepts and scientific attitude the tempest should be stressed normative concerns widen the popular values interrelationship among disciplines: the disciplines that makes of science namely physics chemistry botany zoology half distinct methodologies that often justify the reservation boundaries compulsory teaching of science as a part of Ajay part of a general education of 2 class six or seven han win in practice in most of the stairs during this period the subject usually tortoise general science and secondary stage science was an optional subject.
The measure of the objective are:
to acquire knowledge of biological physical and mental environment including forces of simple natural phenomena to develop scientific attitude objective Outlook spirit of enquiry for the less integrity in anus accuracy precision respect for others an integral approach was to be followed for the teaching of science a set of common them theme was selected for teaching information studies in class 12 class v to follow a spiral approach for introducing the concept in graded manna science curriculum should stress more on the process of science then the product the international have shown that transforming the existing system of education is possible if if of scaling of innovative models in properly plan and educated the NFG focuses on following answer of science science education should enable the learner to to know application consultant duet cognitive development to Aakar the scales and honest and method that leads to validation of scientific knowledge to view as a social enterprise relate to environment nature natural curiosity aesthetic sense and creativity in the values scientific temper objectively critical thinking and freedom from theory and prejudice.
used in the framework of references of general objective content pedagogy and assessment difference across different stages peda gogi cannot be diverted from the content the two most developed together in this paper we have recommended a moth greater emphasis on creative experience sons of students in non formal was both in and out of school activities on practical work survey of biodiversity health and other aspects of environment the best talent in designing the textbooks needs to be taken in with full modern techniques of layout design and graphics low cost Science experiments to be designed some of the key recommendations of this paper are some of state principles and paradigms while some other are effective in nature and focus on action the simple and natural observations leads to 6 basic criteria of validity cognitive content historical process incremental and ethical office science curriculum which is to be followed introduce progressivism shift in Science curriculum at all stages emphasize exploration incentive n s creative creativity through all the activities experiments technological models contextualized as far as possible this paper also recommends project exhibition and children’s science congress regarding exams IIT comments recommenders comprehensive national service test service.
Since time immemorial text book is considered as an important instrument of teaching and learning according to the report of the textbook committee of the central advisory board of education a modern educational system without text book is as difficult to imagine ATS Hamlet without the prince of Denmark.
10 textbook occupies an important place in education it begin an important to teaching as well as learning it used at different stages depends to a large extent on the nature of the subject and the intellectual level of the puppies general speaking textbooks play more prominent role in High school instruction then in the elemental instructions the curriculum friends after framing the curriculum approaches the writer to write the text books and the textbook is essential as it covers the curriculum syllabus off the grade or level.
Functions of Science Textbook:
the subject matter should be interrelated there should be coordination between different lessons the subject matter should be described in an interesting psychological man or third test books should be in accordance with stipulated objectives of the class the textbook social content matter related to new discoveries inventions and census the lesson should be based on the principle of easy to difficult the textbox should be best on the modern and practical methods of teaching physical science those formulas symbols definitions and nomenclature should we use which are accepted are the national and international level the textbox should have suggestions for plants collections homework class work and other physical practical work advantages of the textbook it is an economical device to teach it says standard of minimum essentials to the achieved by populous to all categories it gives the beginner a Grass of numerator it gives direction to the teacher and the puppies it saves time and encourages of the teacher and puppies it makes self-teaching possible some short information of gold standard is ensured.
1.4.1 Qualities of a Science Textbook
it is not only the subject matter and flop language but the mechanical futures live the paper the printing etc also play an important role in the selection of a textbook the qualities of a good science textbook can be divided on the following subheadings the authors qualification and experience the author of the books should be well qualified experience epicenter and export of the subject III should be familiar with the latest development in the subject and objectives the books should be written according to the aims and objectives of teaching science for the that particular grade aur class subject matter the subject matter or contact forms the heart and life of the textbook as search it should be interesting and so satisfy the curiosity of students the subject matter on nails the attention of the following criteria it should be according to The heirs and mental level of the student it should confirm to the basic standard of the class for which it is written it should include recent knowledge of the subject its original real practical observations and experiences of the teachers it should be related to the actual life of the children’s it should reflect the latest developments innovations and inventions in the field of science it should reply the use of modern technology and scientific skills in the advancement of the society and the nation it should follow both the logical and psychological principles in the organisation of the content the topic and material should be arranged according to the basic principle of teaching and learning like concrete to abstract simple to complex and action to talk etc the content should follow the principle of constantly order that is the topic delta within a particular class must be in tune and relationship with what has been taught in the previous class and what is going to be taught in the next class the contents should be correlated with the other subject social and physical environment the contents old ankul in calculator moral cultural disciplinary values in the student the contents should include scientific attitude in the students the content should be complete in itself and so not only inspire the young minds but also develop an aesthetic sense in them style and language the language of the books should be simple yourself and comprehensible it should be free from the type of ambiguity in language terminology and information is standard terminology of scientific and technical terms should be used it should contain glossary of technical terms used in textbook the matter should be presented in thyroid and distinctive form the symbol formula and other nomenclature used in the text should the most common and universal quotations should be in italics illustrations testbook so we will illustrated with figures of object appropriate figures diagrams graphs and examples and this should be according to the level of the students all the illustrations and diagrams should be clean and it is better if they are college organisation of the material the textbox should contain a detailed table of the contents and an index is chapter should begin with private introduction and end with a summary heading and subheading should be bold type it chapter should have assignment reflecting the following revision of the scientific facts and principles application of the scientific facts and principles to life situations experimental work activities assessment test at the end of the glossary of scientific terms with their English equivalents should be given mechanical features of the textbook the paper and in used for printing of the text should be of standard quality the size of the letter illustrator figure and colour used in the printing of the text should be of standard quality the size of the letters illustrator figures and colour used in the printing of the books should be according to the age and mental level of the students it should have proper size it should have proper weight so that students can handle easily it should have attractive it should be properly binded other special features it should contain essential suggestions and guideline for the proper teaching and learning of the subject it should contain practical suggestion for repairing and improvising scientific apparatus it should come for complete syllabus it should be opened by laboratory handbook for manual it should be required from time to time and necessary changes should be made it should be easily available in the market it should be reasonable price.
1.5 Learning Resources for Physical Science Exploring Alternative Resources
immediate environment of the Lawrence in natural learning resource that can be used in making curricular prices the immediate environment includes physical natural and socio cultural learners find Aqua knowledge significant is learning of science text place from the primary context of their immediate environment learning is a continuous process and it has a broader meaning when what takes place in school teachers of physical science should appreciate that the information around the students is full of learning opportunities example on the school ground certain things are almost always available such as soil plants trees in SETC bus sun sign and shadow bicycles and automobiles a range of activities can be organised from these things season 7 materials in fact many learning opportunities are available in the school ground class room kitchen bathroom market on the roads itself outside the classroom experience of the learners can be used in teaching learning of science to provide them fast and experience for anus learning and sand superposition to the environment now let us look at concept and examples of materials obtained from the immediate environment to illustrate the concept natural pH indicators some natural pH indicators that can be used in teaching learning situations are given below dates basic solution will change the colour of beet juice from red to purple turmeric it contains a yellow pigment in which changes from yolo at PS 7.4 to read pH 8.6 colour chance lipstick test the colour change lipstick to determine its pH range most cosmetic change colour due to change in periods police washing machines generator etc projectiles long jump of athletics water fountain basketball girl born etc laws and mirrors camera sunglass driver side mirror pillars jhooth bol cotton common salt solubility concentration etc interconversion of one form of energy to other almost all machines around as propagation of waves in solid liquid and gas propagation of longitudinal and transverse waves in slinky repels in water reserve of eco in big hall qualities should be encouraged to construct and reconstruct their knowledge from observing classifying categorising questioning reasoning are going and interacting with the natural world and people around them a science teacher suit thing on the line of flexibility contacts 12 contacts wali and morality in designing curricular experiences in order to relate teaching learning of physical Science with immediate environment of the learners in number of carry home activities can be identified as an extension of classroom activity many South activities can be adjusted as list some of the changes taking place around you physical chemical released acids bases and salt commonly used in our daily life less things at home which are good or bad conductors of heat and electricity make measurements length volume area of some solids and liquids.
1.5.1 Using Community Resources
a community resource is anything that has the potential to improve the quality of life in a community according to the community toolbox from the University of Cayenne SAS taking students on field trips are using other community resources in their classroom is not a new idea for teachers curriculum reform in Science calls for in new look at using community resources changing the educational expenses of children by moving beyond the classroom was can diversity the way of learning opportunities and connect school lessons with daily life and real problems teachers always has taught task of pulling together the Divas understanding their students bring to the classroom the use of community resources provider shared memory for the class for example going on a field trip is only part of the total experience community resources that can enhance science learning include science centres to visit museums nature centres interactive science centres aquaria gardens and juice places to explore that are unique you to the local school people in the community or material that can be bought for purchased community resources can be used in teaching learning of science other by bringing community to the class or taking class to the community.
1.5.2 Bringing Community to The Class
teacher most explore opportunities for active engagement of the parents and the community in the teaching learning process of physical Science different members of the community also hold a large variety of valuable knowledge and experience with and students these members can be invited to school and learners can interact with them learners can visit their places of work also the expertise of members there is from community to community some examples are electrician domestic wiring circuit fuse switches toaster etc ka pata liver talk you etc rotational motion centripetal force etc.